Friday, October 5, 2012

New At Schwanke Museum

Sorry I have not posted in a while I had a busy summer and well there were other things involved. All of the things I talk about in this blog are in our museum and I go to great lengths to find information on the items posted on here. We have added a few new vehicles and tractors and gas pumps this fall. I will post pictures of what we have right now.

We have added four new gas pumps, two Bennett's shown below

A Martin Schwartz shown below

                                                             and a Wayne gas dispenser
shown below are all for pumps together.
I wish I had taken pictures of these four pumps when we started the restoration they were not a pretty sight to see but we had a blast working on them. As you can tell they look really nice and I am happy to be a part of restoring them.

Willy MB

The Willys MB

Here at the Schwanke Museum we have several Iconic vehicles that made a mark in history and the one I am going to write about this week is one of those vehicles.

The 1946 Willys CJ2A, even though this jeep was built post World War II it still has many parts that were used on the MB and it even has the look of the MB that were used during the war.

First let’s start with a little history; during the First World War many of the military forces made and attempts at mechanize military forces. The air plane was still in its infancy along with the mechanized tank, and troop carriers. The US Army began using the 4x4 trucks that were built by the Four Wheel Drive Automobile Company out of Clintonville, Wisconsin and even those 4x4 trucks had a bulky design. The United States Department of War decided they needed a lighter more durable cross-country reconnaissance vehicle.                                                    

Tensions were beginning to heighten around the globe as the 1930’s were coming to an end. So the U.S. Army approached the 135 American Automotive Manufactures to make suggestions as to what they could design to replace the existing light motorized vehicles that the military was using many that were obsolete. The new vehicle would replace mostly the many motorcycles with side cars and their small fleet of Ford Model T’s. The first result was not what the U.S. Army expected because only a handful of automobile manufactures would rise to the challenge. One of the first manufacturers to present the U.S. Army with five prototypes was the Marmon-Herrington 4x4 Ford trucks in 1937 and in 1938 American Bantam Company would present the U.S. Army with three Austin roadsters. Neither vehicle would meet the requirements at the time. Part of the reason they did not meet the requirements was that the Army had yet to come up with what they wanted in a vehicle. It wasn’t until July 11th 1940 that they formalized plans for the vehicle they needed.  So with their specifications set the Army would once again approach manufacturers. This time the Army would send out their manual, the TM 9-803 and it would describe their vehicle as “a general purpose, personnel, or cargo carrier especially adaptable for reconnaissance or command, and designated as 1/4 – ton 4x4 truck.”                      

The war was now underway in most of Europe, and the Army saw the need for this vehicle and it was becoming more urgent and they were becoming more demanding. The Army decided that bids would need to be received by July 22, this would give manufactures a span of eleven days to get their bids in. After the bids were received the Army would give Manufacturers 49 days to submit their first prototype and 75 days for completion of 70 test vehicles.

The Army was demanding but the Army's Ordnance Technical Committee and their specifications would be equally demanding. The prototypes had to be four-wheel drive and be able to carry a crew of three, it also had to have a wheelbase of no more than 75 (later 80) inches and tracks no more than 47 inches, a fold-down windshield was a must, and it also had to have a 660 lb payload and the engine had to be powerful and capable of 85 ft-lb (115 N-m) of torque. The most demand thing was that it had to be light and had to have an empty weight of no more than 1,300 lb (590 kg).

There would only be three companies to enter bids, they were the American Bantam Car Company, Willys-Overland Motors and Ford. Willys-Overland would be the low bidder of the three, but American Bantam would receive the bid. The reason they received the bid was because they were the only company who would committed to delivering a prototype model in 49 days and produce the other examples in 75. The lead designer was Karl Probst, and it was his design they used to build the Bantam their first prototype, the design crew and builder would dub it the "Blitz Buggy" (and later they would call it "Old Number One"). The first Bantam would be delivered on September 23rd 1940, to the Army’s vehicle testing center at Camp Holabird, Maryland. The vehicle would eventually evolve into what would be the Army’s official World War II U.S. Army Jeeps: the Willys MB and Ford GPW.                     

The American Bantam Company did not have the production capacity nor did they have fiscal stability to deliver the vehicles. It was decided by the War Department that Ford and Willys-Overland should complete their prototype models for testing. It was decided by the War Department that the contract for the new reconnaissance vehicle would be determined by those trials. The first test was the American Bantam prototype and it would take place on September 27 and run through October 16. The War Department asked that the Ford and Willys engineers be present at the Holabird testing grounds so they would have the opportunity to study the prototypes performance. The War Department even forwarded the American Bantam blueprints to Ford and Willys. The reason the War Department forward the blueprints was they claimed the government had the right to the blueprints and the vehicles design. The American Bantam Company never argues over this move due to their financial situation. After the American Bantam prototypes trials the Ford and Willys-Overland were urged to submit their own prototypes to the Army by November 1940. When the other two prototypes were ready it was time for them to compete with the Bantam in the Army's trials. The prototype model that Willys-Overland introduces was the Quad and Ford prototype was called the Pygmy as it turned out the three vehicles were very similar to each other. American Bantam Company made adjustments to their entry which would be called the Mark II BRC 60 it and the other two were ready for testing. Time was running out and the War Department was under pressure so all three cars were declared acceptable. The first order was for 1,500 units per company which would be used for field testing. As assembly of the new reconnaissance vehicle began it was realized that the original weight limit was unrealistic the War Department raised the weight limit from1,300 lb (590 kg) to 2,160 pounds (980 kg).

It was decided in pre-production runs and revisions that the vehicles would receive a new name. The American Bantam Companies vehicle would become the BRC 40 which would also become the last vehicle built American Bantam, because the company would cease motor vehicle production after December 1941.  Willys would reduce the weight of their vehicle by 240 pounds and change its designation to "MA" for "Military" model "A". When Ford went into production they gave their new vehicle the designation of "GP", the "G" would stand "Government" type contract and the "P" was commonly used by Ford to designate any passenger car with a wheelbase of 80 inches.

The War Department also wanted to have a standard vehicle, so it was decided to select a single manufacturer to fill the next order of 16,000 vehicles; this decision was made in July of 1941. One of the reasons Willys won the contract was because of their powerful little engine (the "Go Devil") and many soldiers would raved about it, another reason was because of its lower cost and silhouette. The new designs would feature parts taken from the Bantam and Ford prototypes, and they were add to the Willys new design, some were improvements over the Willys' design. A new designation was given the Willys, changing it from "A" designation to "B", thus the "MB" classification. Most notable was a flat wide hood, adapted from the Fords GP.

It became apparent by October 1941 that the Willys-Overland Company would not be able to keep up with production demand, so Ford was contracted to produce them as well. The vehicle that Ford would build would be designated with the GPW the "W" would refer to the licensed design of the "Willys". Willys would produce over 363,000 Jeeps and Ford some 280,000 during World War II. There were approximately 51,000 that were exported to the U.S.S.R. under the U.S.’s Lend-Lease program.

Ford would also build another 13,000 (roughly) amphibian jeeps and would name it the GPA (nicknamed 'Seep' for Sea Jeep). The Sea Jeep was inspired by the larger DUKW, but the vehicle was produced to fast, it proved to be too heavy and was too unwieldy plus it was to insufficient freeboard. The Sea Jeep participated successfully in the Sicily landing in July 1943 but after the landing most of GPAs were routed to the U.S.S.R. under the Lend-Lease program. The Soviets were pleased with the GPAs ability to cross rivers and began to develop their own version of the GPA after the war and they would call it the GAZ-46.

The origins of the term “Jeep”

There are many origins of the term jeep and one begins at the beginning. It was said that when the prototypes were at the proven grounds on the military bases, the mechanics would use the term “jeep” for any untried or untested vehicle and it stayed with the vehicle when it left the base.

Another origin comes from the soldiers; it was said that the soldiers were so impressed with the new vehicle so much that they named it after Eugene the Jeep which was a character in the cartoons created by E.C. Segar. In case you didn’t know Eugene the Jeep was the jungle Pet of Popeye’s it was small and able to move between dimensions and could solve impossible problems without any effort.

Another story comes from when the Willys-Overland Company staged their first press event in early 1941. They were demonstrating the vehicles prowess by driving up the Capital steps. The test driver Irving “Red” Hausmann who was also a member of the Willys development team had heard soldiers refer to the vehicle as a jeep while he was at Camp Holabird and while giving demonstration rides to a group of dignitaries, this would include Katherine Hillyer, a reporter for the Washington News heard him refer to the vehicle as a jeep. So when Hillyer’s article appeared in the Washington Daily News on February 20th 1941, the photo of the vehicle going up the Capital steps read jeep in the caption. It is believed that Hausmann is most likely the one that is most responsible for the first media usage. Even though it is most likely that Hausmann caused the term to be fixed in public awareness he did not create the word or invent the word jeep.    

It is also thought that the name Jeep could have come from Fords version of the Willys because of the designation GP, therefore Gee P; it is possibly because later Ford would cause problems as there were legal matters with the name.

Willys-Overland would produce over 363,000 Jeeps along with Ford building some 280,000 during World War II. Generals, soldier and civilians alike loved the new reconnaissance vehicle it made getting into and out of the battle field easier. It was often used by Generals as a command post when overlooking the battles.

With the war over Ford decided it was time to sue Willys for the right to the term “Jeep” unfortunately the courts sided with the Willys-Overland Company and the Jeep name became the sole property of Willys. It was decided the Willys would make a version of the Jeep to sell to the public. The first of the CJ2A (Civilian Jeep) would roll of the assembly line in late 1945. It also put its mark in history as the first four wheel drive to be mass produced for civilian use.

A side note in history:

The U.S. Federal Trade Commission agreed with the American Bantam Company in 1948, that the idea of the Jeep was a created by American Bantam in collaboration with a few Officers of the US Army and the commission informed Willys that they could not claim direct or imply that they created or designed the Jeep and that it only claim that they only contributed to the development of the 4x4 vehicle. In 1950 thing change when American Bantam Company went bankrupt, and Willys was permitted the full trademark for the Jeep.

When the first CJ2A rolled of the assembly line they were essentially the same as the MB, with the exception of the vacuum-powered windshield wipers, a tailgate, a side mounted spare tire and new headlights since the ones they had on the vehicle were for military use. Other amenities the civilian jeep would have were the Naugahyde seats, a chrome trim package and a variety of colors. The jeep would continue to use the same engine but used the bigger T-90 transmission by doing this they hoped to appeal to the rural buyers. Willys-Overland, later to become Willys Motors and then Kaiser Jeep, they would continue to supply the U.S. Military as well as many of the allied nations with their Jeeps through the 1960’s.

The first of the postwar military jeep was the M38 or MC as it was designated was launched in 1950, this jeep was based on the 1949 CJ-3A. Another change was made again in1953, when they came out with the new M38A1or MD and it would feature the new rounded-fender. It would also feature the new Willys Hurricane engine which was taller than the previous engine that was part of the reason for the new fenders. This jeep would later be developed into the CJ-5 which would be launched in 1955. They also had a version that they would use as an ambulance and it designated the M170 or MDA, it would feature a 20-inch wheelbase stretch, this version would also be turned into the civilian CJ-6.

Willys would offer the public a cheaper alternative to the CJ-5, with a taller F-head engine in the form of the CJ-3B and a CJ-3A body with the taller hood. This jeep was quickly turned into the M606 and it was mostly used as their export vehicle. This vehicle was equipped with the option of their heavy-duty tires and springs, black-out lighting, olive drab paint, and a trailer hitch in 1968. After 1968 the M606A2 and M606A3 versions of the CJ-5 would be sold to friendly foreign governments. They would also issue licenses to produce the CJ-3B to other countries; Mahindra, India continues to produce this vehicle in some form or another to this day. The French army produced its own version of the Willys MB, the Hotchkiss M201.

Of course the Jeep would inspire many imitations from its competitors such as Land Rover, Toyota, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Suzuki and others. They all owe their beginnings to the 4x4 world to the Willys Jeep.

The military Jeep would continue to be used in the Korean conflict and the Vietnam War. The MB jeep was mostly used during the Korean conflict until the introduction of the M38 and the M38A1 in 1952 and 1953; they are all descendents of the Willys MB. The Vietnam War would see the introduction of the newly designed Ford M151 Mutt, and it would feature the state of the art technology of the unibody and the all around independent suspension with coil springs. Smaller forms of the Jeep were also created for the U.S. Marines such as the M422 Mighty Mite which was easier to airlift and handle. The U.S. military would eventually decided to go to a newer vehicle and the role of the jeep would be slowly be phased out and be replaced by another light military vehicle the HMMWV or the Humvee.

The Willys-Overland MB Jeep would be honored in 1991 as an International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Chrysler would produce a special edition of the Willys in 2004 and 2005 producing only 1,000 Willys Special Edition Jeep Wranglers.

Chrysler still produces the Jeep still to this day in one form or another.




Monday, May 7, 2012

Back for another Season

Hello everyone sorry I have not posted in a while but posts are coming soon, I have been working all winter on getting prepared for the opening on Saturday May 19th and Sunday May 20th. We welcome everyone to stop by before or during the annual Willmar Car Club Car Show on May 20th. We have made a few changes in the museum. We moved a few cars and tractors around while adding a few new vehicles, (not going to tell you, you will have to stop in and see for yourself), add a few more vintage signs to the walls. We also changed a few things around in the Gift Shop, adding new collectible toy cars, pedal cars, and new pedal tractors, plus much much more. I am getting excited to see old face and make new freinds so stop on in the museum hours are Monday thru Saturday from 1pm to 4pm.
Hope to see you soon.

Friday, October 14, 2011

I know I have not posted in the last two weeks. But we lost a member of the Schwanke family and I wanted to pay my respects to the family.
We only have two weeks left here at the museum and I wanted to show you a little bit around the gift shop.
Everything we have in the gift shop is for sale so stop by and check things out. Just to name a few items we have here at the museum gift shop: Pedal tractors, Pedal cars, toy tractors, toy cars, a vast array of John Deere knick knacks, Harley Davidson tin signs, prints and much much more.

Here are a few photos I took of the gift shop.

Pedal Airplane

John Deere bird house

Match or Tooth pick holders

Pedal police car, Chev Pedal car and 1/8 scale John Deere tractor

just a few of the collectible toy tractors

16'' John Deere boys bike we also have girls bikes

just a few of the many books we have that feature tractors

walls of collectable tin signs 

collectable gas globes, toy cars and tractors 

signed farm prints

collectable toy tractors and trucks

signed Farmall M Pedal tractor

Car collector books

this is just a small helping of what we have for sale at Schwanke Museum. So check us out

I have also decided that I am only going to write one article a month till we open again in the spring.
so have a good winter and keep stopping in to the blog for updateds.

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

In Memory of Mike Schwanke

On Monday October 3rd we lost a Beloved Family Member and Friend; Mike Schwanke.

Mike Schwanke is the son of Virgil and Agnes Schwanke.

I had the pleasure of working with Mike at the Schwanke Truck and Tractor Shop and at the Schwanke Museum for the last 2 years. Every afternoon Mike would park one of the 3 8N tractors he had rebuilt out in front of the Museum for display. Mike was a great mechanic, if a part was needed and could not be bought he would manufacture the part himself. Mike worked around the shop where he worked on tractors, changed tires, and general maintenance around the shop and museum.

Mike was a quite man, but when you got him talking he was a joy to listen too. I enjoyed his many fishing story or the stories of his youth. Mike also restore many of the vehicles that are on display at the museum. So in Memory of Mike Schwanke, I am going to post the Three 8N Ford here on the Schwanke Museum blog.

1949 8N 60 hp French Built Engine

 The Three 8N's  

1949 V12 Ford 8N 120 hp

1949 V12 Ford 8N 120 hp
Thank You Mike Schwanke you will be missed.

Thursday, September 22, 2011

1916 Eagle F 12-22

1916 Eagle F 12-22 right side view
The Eagle Manufacturing Company of Appleton, Wisconsin

Like many companies that built tractors, Eagle Manufacturing Company was no different. They started as the Eagle Fork Company in 1881, in Appleton, Wisconsin, along the Fox River. The company would be the brain child of three men, Richard Miller who would head up the management with John Kanouse and William Polifka. In the beginning they would employ 6 people and the products they would produce were hay tools, horse powers and saw mill frames.
The Eagle Fork company was growing and the owners decided they needed to incorporate so in December of 1888 they changed their name to the Eagle Manufacturing Company and became incorporated. The reason the company incorporated was so they could manufacture products plus they could buy, sell, repairing and deal in farm implements and hardware. They would also employ 11 more employees  and by doing this they would be able to increase production.

As the company progressed they would see several share buy outs take place. Richard Miller decided he wanted to move on and he would sell all of his shares to the Sailberlich brothers, Edward, Frank, and Oscar in January, 1894. The Sailberlich brothers decided the company needed to go in a different direction so they began by manufacturing silage cutters and their new design would include interchangeable cutter plates and this new venture proved to be a success.

Times were changing and the brother decided to once again go in another direction. So In 1899, they would enter into what was the new rage and began experimenting with gasoline engines. They would soon outgrow their Fox River facility and decided to build a new and more modern plant so in 1904 they move to their new plant. With work progressing on their gasoline engines and production of their other products going well they would introduce a new line of silage cutter/filler and began experimenting with a gasoline tractor. They would come out with their first tractor in early 1905, it would use two of their 16 hp. engine blocks mounted on an opposed configuration crankcase. That tractor would be the only model that would use the opposed set-up. The tractor was rated at 20-32 hp, and it weighed in at 12,000 lbs. The two side shaft engines used the hit and miss governor. It had a 9.5 in. bore and 13 in. stroke. They did not build many of these models and after 1906 the model was virtually nonexistent.
The Eagle Manufacturing Company was becoming a true diversified company and they were manufacturing many different products. In their 1908 sales catalog they talked about their extensive line of equipment which included their single cylinder gas engines, engine/saw combinations, silage cutter/blowers, sweep type horse-powers, power jacks, saw rigs, burr mills and grain grinders.

From 1910-1916 Eagle Manufacturing Company would come out with their 4 cylinder series. They built the 16-30 tractor, 25-45 tractor, and 40-60 tractor. The 40-60 models weighed in at 19,000 lbs., rear wheels were 72 in. in diameter. The larger tractor would sell fairly well and it was used mainly in the wheat growing areas of the US.
The company was feeling growing pains in 1913, with production of their gasoline engines and the new line of tractors and the other line of new equipment they had been producing the need for more operating capital was needed.

With the production of the Model D, which was in production from 1913 to 1916, they decided to build it also in three sizes, 8-16, 12-22, and 16-30. The tractor featured a 2 cylinder headless engine with removable valve cages, both pistons would go forward at the same time this gave the tractor a very distinctive sound. They would keep this configuration with the 2 cylinder tractors till they ended this series. The grease cups would provide lubrication to the engine bearings.
1916 Eagle F 12-22 left side view

1916 Eagle F 12-22
 They would produce the Model F from 1916 to 1922 and they only built two sizes, 12-22, and 16-30. The large shroud that was around the radiator on their earlier tractors was done away with. The engine on this tractor would feature an in house built governor and they would use the Madison Kipp oiler and it would provide lube to all the pistons.
World War I began to put a strain on the company like so many other US manufacturing companies. So the board of directors decided that they needed to authorize an increase in capital stock. This would give them enough money to build a new facility and would allow them to take advantage of the wartime growth. Of course with new growth there would also need to bring on new personnel into the company. A decision was made in 1918, by two of the three brothers, Oscar and Frank Sailberlichs they would sell off their share of the holdings then would go on to founded the Fox River Tractor Co. in Appleton, Wisconsin. Their new tractors did not do as well as they expected, but the Fox forage harvesters did better than expected and had a long life and they went on to produce exceptional silage making equipment.

Eagle Manufacturing Company would put all their efforts into building tractors throughout the 20's and 30's. The first tractors to roll off the assembly line from 1922-1928 was the Model H, this tractor was built in four sizes the 13-25, 16-30, 20-40, and 22-45. The early “transitional” models would still use the old style flywheel governor and chain steering, then later models would use the Pickering governor and this would feature an automotive type steering.

The Model E was only built one year 1928-1929 they only made one size, the 20-35. It would feature a Madison Kipp oiler which would lubricated all regions inside the engine, the radiator would set at the conventional position, the transmission would be enclosed, and it was said that this tractor was the ultimate Eagle two cylinder tractor.
These 2 cylinder tractors that the Eagle Manufacturing Company made would become famous for was the "Eagle Beat" and they ended production in 1930. The tractors were built for 17 years and had very few changes during production.

The 1930 would see a change in production with the move to a 6 cylinder tractor. Instead of building components in house they would use mostly out sourced components. This was done in a last ditch effort to keep up with the competition. The first tractor they would build using out sourced components was the Model 6A and it would feature the big Hercules 6 cylinder engine and then again in 1932 they would switch to the Waukesha engine. The Eagle tractors would go from the 2 cylinder engine, to a 6 cylinder starting with this model. One of the options available for this tractor was steel wheels or rubber. This model would be built from 1930 to 1937.

Production of the Model 6B or Universal began in 1936 and would end production in 1938 and this tractor used the Hercules 6 cylinder engine it would also come with Rubber tires as standard equipment. What made this tractor unique was that this little row crop tractor had an adjustable rear tread with a four speed transmission, and could reach speeds up to 13 mph.

But like all small companies the great depression of the 30's made it hard for many small companies, and the Eagle Manufacturing company was no exception. Like so many they were plagued by declining sales and higher operating expenses. They built a good quality 6 cylinder tractor, that could be use as a standard or row crop tractor and 1938 would see the end of production for the company.

The Model 6C or Utility tractor would be the last tractor to roll off the floors and it would shared most of the same specs the 6B had. This little tractor had a very practical design and many considered it a handy little rig. Production of the tractor started in 1937 and ended in 1938.

The company was sold in 1941 to the Four Wheel Drive Auto Company of Clintonville, Wisconsin; they would use many of the parts that Eagle had acquired throughout the years in their production, but it would still end the 50 year run that the Eagle Manufacturing Company enjoyed.

Friday, September 9, 2011

1917 International Cultivator, 1916 International 8-16, 1920 IHC Titan 10-20 and 1916 IHC Mogul 8-16

1917 International Cultivator, 1916 International 8-16, 1920 IHC Titan 10-20 and the 1916 IHC Mogul 8-16

As you are walking down the first Quonset at the Schwanke Museum there is a row of International Harvester tractors toward the end of the line of the tractors you will see a trailer with three mogul engines ( I will write about them later) a 1917 International Cultivator, two 1916 IHC Mogul 8-16 and a 1920 IHC 10-20. The first is the 1917 International Cultivator next to that is the first of the Moguls the International 8-16 four cylinder which has a cover that encloses the engine. Next is the 1920 IHC Titan 10-20, then the 1916 Mogul 8-16. If you haven’t been to the museum or if you walk to fast you will these missed these four tractors and then you will have missed out. All four tractors have been restored to their original state. Like everything I have written about on this blog I will give you the history of the manufacturer. Lately I have been a little long winded so I will give you the history up to the point of the manufacturing of the tractors because the International Harvester Company is still manufacturing tractors still today under the name of Case IH.

International Harvester Company
The roots of International Harvester go back to the 1830s, when inventor Cyrus Hall McCormick from Virginia created his own version of a horse-drawn reaper. He would take his reaper and field-demonstrated throughout 1831. He received a patent for his design in 1834. Together with his brother Leander J. McCormick (1819–1900), they decide on together to move to Chicago in 1847 and there they would start the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company. The McCormick reaper sold well, mainly because McCormick developed a marketing and sales technique. The company developed a vast network of trained salesmen who were able to demonstrate how to operate the machines in the field. What also help sales of their products was that the development of railroad and its expansion offered wide distribution to distant market areas. Business was booming as a result of McCormick’s savvy and innovative business practices.
1916 International Mogul 8-16

1920 International Harvester Titan 10-20
McCormick passed away in 1884, and his company was passed to his son, Cyrus McCormick, Jr. The success of the company caught the eye of J.P. Morgan so in 1902, the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company, along with three other small agricultural equipment firms (Milwaukee; Plano; and Warder, Bushnell, and Glessner who were the manufacturers of Champion brand) would merge and this would create the International Harvester Company. Even after the merger of these companies, they pretty much operated as before as separate divisions with competition high between both divisions. One division would work on designing the Mogul while the other worked on the Titan design. The first tractor produced was the friction drive and it was a combination of a chassis designed by the Ohio Manufacturing Company and the International Harvesters horizontal stationary engine. This proved to be a successful which prompted them to continue developing tractors. Many of these tractors were large and cumbersome of course the primary purpose was to break large plots of ground and to power equipment with the tractors belt pulley. By 1910 the company’s management pushed the two divisions to build smaller, cheaper and to make the tractors more efficient. The group that built the Mogul produced the Mogul 12-25 and the 8-16 and the failure prone International 8-16 but it proved to be a revolution in the tractor world.   

1916 Mogul 8-16
The group that worked on the Titan produced the ever reliable 10-20 and their own 12-25. These tractors would spearhead the model lines and dominate the market until the introduction of the Fordson. It was decided in 1917 to move the two divisions together effectively ending the competition between the two staffs. The Fordson was now providing the real competition, so it was time for the designers to come up with either a cheaper tractor or a tractor that was better than the competitions. With the two departments together they would come up with another legendary tractor and it was marketed as a motorized cultivator tractor, but it was expensive to make, so it was back to the drawing board. Only a few hundred of the cultivator tractors were made and were marketed from 1917 to 1918. You can also find this cultivator tractor here at the museum.        
1917 International Cultivator
In 1919, International Harvester purchased the Parlin and Orendorff factory in Canton, Illinois at the time they were one of leading plow manufacturing companies in the industry. After International Harvester purchased the factory they would call it the Canton Works; production there would continue for many decades.
The tractors that the International Harvester Company built would be add to their line agriculture equipment. The Mogul and Titan brands would be sold by McCormick dealers; the first of their many tractors was the Type C Mogul which was little more than a stationary engine on a tractor chassis, fitted with friction drive (one speed forward, one reverse). This first tractor was built between 1911 and 1914, around 862 Moguls were built.  

In 1914 the dealer would see the new International Harvester tractor the 8-16 h. p. single cylinder hopper cooled tractor. They called this tractor a two plow it had a planetary gear it featured a single speed with a single final chain drive with the differential mounted on the back axle. The front wheels were steered by a rack and worm gear. It also featured a Wico oscillating low tension magneto. The belt pulley was mounted on the flywheel and was operated by a hand wheel clutch. Its speed was 400 r. p. m. and weight 5,000 lbs.; it had a sale price of $675, f. o. b. from Chicago. The 8-16 were manufactured from 1914 to 1917.
Single final chain drive with the differential mounted on the back axle.
The many consider the first important tractors to come from International Harvester were the model 10-20 and 15-30. They were introduced in 1915 when the tractors went into production international purposely made them smaller than their predecessors. The tractors primary use was as traction engines to pull 2 bottom plows and they were also used for belt work on threshing machines. Even though the 10-20 and 15-30 were different tractors they had similar qualities to their predecessor the Mogul.

 The 10-20 were a hopper-cooled single cylinder, it also featured a two speed sliding gear transmission, a single chain drive, and just like its predecessor the Moguls, it featured two hand clutches one for the transmission and one for the hand wheel type for the belt pulley.

Both the Mogul and the Titan are truly International tractors several of these tractors were shipped to Europe with many of them going to Great Britain just before the start of World War 1. The average prices for the tractors were 580 pounds sterling or around 2,400 dollars American. These tractors were instrumental as sodbusters in the tough English countryside. They were also instrumental in coal and iron production as work horses. One tractor could do the work of 10 men in one day and this would allow for more men on the battle field during the war. Many of these tractors according to a friend of mine in England are featured pieces in a few museums in England.      

As you walk along the row of Farmall, International Harvester, and McCormick-Deering, toward the back of the museum you will see the 1917 International cultivator and right next to the first of the two Mogul is the revolutionary International 8-16, even thought tractor was prone to problem it was one of the first tractors to feature a 4 cylinder kerosene engine it had a ball bearing crank shaft, effective air filter and sleeved engines the tractor was only produced for two year before it was pulled from the market. Even thought the tractor carries the International name it was built by the Mogul team, next to the International sit the 1920 International Harvester 10-20 Titan and finally the 1916 Mogul 8-16. So you have to stop in and take a look at these revolutionary tractors.